Chakshu NK, Carson J, Sazonov I, Nithiarasu P

International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering (2019) 35(5):e3180

In this work, we propose a methodology to detect the severity of carotid stenosis from a video of a human face with the help of a coupled blood flow and head vibration model. This semi-active digital twin model is an attempt to link non-invasive video of a patient face to the percentage of carotid occlusion. The pulsatile nature of blood flow through the carotid arteries induces a subtle head vibration. This vibration is a potential indicator of carotid stenosis severity, and it is exploited in the present study. A head vibration model has been proposed in the present work that is linked to the forces generated by blood flow with or without occlusion. The model is used to generate a large number of virtual head vibration data for different degrees of occlusion. In order to determine the in vivo head vibration, a computer vision algorithm is adopted to use human face videos. The in vivo vibrations are compared against the virtual vibration data generated from the coupled computational blood flow/vibration model. A comparison of the in vivo vibration is made against the virtual data to find the best fit between in vivo and virtual data. The preliminary results on healthy subjects and a patient clearly indicate that the model is accurate and it possesses the potential for detecting approximate severity of carotid artery stenoses.